Laser scanning techniques and confocal imaging allowed the investigation of microscopic structures three-dimensionally. Compared with a standard microscope, the confocal microscope has enhanced lateral and axial resolution, as well as it has improved contrast, and in particular it can remove out-of-focus blur. Thus, an optical, noninvasive sectioning capability is achieved in thick specimens. The final breakthrough of confocal microscopy in biomedicine and material science boosted the development of a variety of commercial confocal laser scanning microscopes. Highly developed optoelectronic components such as laser light sources and sensitive detectors, as well as the application of specific fluorescent dyes, enabled wide acceptance of this new imaging technique together with effective use of powerful computers to digitally store, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional data.


  • Track 1-1 Fluorescence Microscopy
  • Track 2-2 Inverted Microscopy
  • Track 3-3 Optoelectronic Imaging
  • Track 4-4 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
  • Track 5-5 Biomedical Applications

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