Enzyme and Immunoassays
The catalytic activity of enzymes provides for an enormous range of analytical techniques. Analytes are not restricted to conventional organic molecules, but include virtually all chemical species, including gases and metal ions. The ability of a single enzyme molecule to catalyze the reaction of numerous substrate molecules also provides an amplification effect which enhances the sensitivity.A further advantage is that most enzyme-catalyzed reactions can be followed by simple, widely available spectroscopic or electrochemical methods. Enzymes are normally active only in mild conditions-aqueous solutions at moderate temperatures and controlled pH-and this restricts the circumstances in which they can be used, but some enzymes have proved remarkably robust to, e.g., mixed aqueous-organic solvent systems or elevated temperature; immobilized (insolubilized) enzymes often show enhanced stability compared with their solution analogs.
- Track 1-1 Radioimmunoassay
- Track 2-2 Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA)
- Track 3-3 Enzyme-Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT)
- Track 4-4 Apoenzyme Reconstitution Immunoassay System (ARIS)
- Track 5-5 Latex Particle Agglutination Immunoassay
- Track 6-6 Homogeneous Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA)